red pepper flakes(reduce by half if you don't want a spicy blend)
Per teaspoon of the other spices (for example, if you use 1/2 tsp. of each spice above, you'll use 1 cardamom pod and 1 clove):
seeds of 2 cardamom pods
a pinch of saffron
In a small, nonstick skillet over medium heat, add all of the whole spices (peppercorns through caraway seeds, cardamom seeds, and cloves).
Toast the spices, stirring frequently, until they become fragrant and the lighter ones start to darken slightly, 2-3 minutes.
Grind the toasted spices together with the allspice, nutmeg, and (optional) saffron using the kitchen implement of your choice (coffee or spice grinder, mortar and pestle, blender, etc.).
Store in an airtight container; will keep at room temperature for about a month, or longer in the refrigerator or freezer. Grinding whole spices releases their oils, which decay over time, and cold temperature can slow this process.